AI in indonesia

 

Indonesia is an archipelago country consists of variety of tribes, religion, and races. It also has variety of social economy level. There are hundreds tribes, 5 official religions and many beliefs.

Indonesian economy welfare is very low as can be seen in the low HDI figure. High Per capita incomes are distributed in several big cities only, while the rest of other small and remote areas are very low. With fact more 70% population lives in village areas (small and remote areas), which mean Indonesian economy level is very low.

This low economy level affected education sector. On average Indonesian people having low education level. Economy, education, social and cultural character exist leads to a certain perspective of the people when dealing with something. Within the HPAI control context, the people’s perspective and its base factors are some of the important things to be considered. This sophisticated society reflected in the sophisticate of HPAI control in Indonesia.

 

        AI entered Indonesia on 2003. Up to now AI has been spread to 29 from total 33 provinces. More than 10 billion Poultry has been died/ culled and 52 people had died due to the AI. Direct losses are estimated at over $ 170 million. AI spreading rapidly in Indonesia because its facilitated by the archipelago’s dense populated area, unbalanced situation: so vast area so little human resource to work on AI issues, communities low awareness about AI, undetected poultry movement, so many kampong chicken raised freely in the backyards (not put them in cage).

 

AI in Indonesia needs a very serious control action due to the danger of the disease. At the moment the virus already spread in 30 provinces of Indonesia, of which 9 provinces among them human case is found. Whereas the highest rank of the virus transmission takes place in West Java consist of 26 cases, 20 of them died. Next is Jakarta (18 cases, 16 died), Banten (8 cases, all died), North Sumatra (7 cases, 6 died), East Java (5 cases, 3 died), Central Java (4 cases, 3 died), Lampung (3 cases), West Sumatra (2 cases), and South Sulawesi (1 cases, died). Compared to other countries, Indonesia has the highest case. As shown by the table below:

Country

2005

2006

2007

Case

Death

Case

Death

Case

Death

Azerbaijan

0

0

8

5

0

0

Cambodia

4

4

2

2

0

0

China

8

5

12

8

0

0

Djibouti

0

0

1

0

0

0

Mesir

0

0

18

10

0

0

Indonesia

19

12

55

45

2

1

Irak

0

0

3

2

0

0

Thailand

0

0

3

2

0

0

Turki

0

0

12

4

0

0

Vietnam

61

19

0

0

0

0

TOTAL

97

42

112

77

2

1

Table 1: people suffer from AI up to January 2007.

(Kompas Newspaper, Thursday 11 January 2007)

 

POULTRY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING SYSTEM

 

This article will talk mainly about sector 4 and AI spreading pattern in the mentioned sector. Why? Most of AI case in Indonesia originated from sector 4.

Map:

Ada peta baru gak ya??

System Characterization

According FAO and OIE (World Organization for Animal Health) Poultry cultivation differentiates in 5 sectors/systems as shown in the table below.

 

Characteristics

Poultry Production Systems

Parameter

Industrial and Integrated Production

Commercial Poultry Production

Village or Backyard Production

Large Scale

Small Scale

Poultry

Domestic Ducks

Production systems

System 1

System 2

System 3

System 4

System 5

Biosecurity

High

Medium

Low

Low

Low

Market outputs

Export and urban

Urban/rural

Live urban/rural

Rural

Rural/urban

Dependence on market for inputs

High

High

High

Medium

High

Dependence on market access

High

High

High

Medium

Medium

Location

Near capital and major cities

Near capital and major cities

Smaller town and rural area

Outdoors

Outdoors

Type of confinement

Indoors

Indoors

Indoors/part-time outdoors

Not confined

Not confined

Housing

Closed

Closed

Closed/open

Minimal

None

Contact with other poultry

None

None

Yes

Contact with domestic ducks

None

None

Yes

Yes

Yes

Contact with other domestic birds

None

None

Yes

Yes

Yes

Contact with wild life

None

None

Yes

Yes

Yes

Veterinary service

Own veterinarian

Pays for veterinary service

Pays for veterinary service

Irregular

Irregular

Source of medicine and vaccine

Market

Market

Market

Government, Market

Government, Market

Source of technical information

Company and associates

Sellers of inputs

Sellers of inputs

Govt. extension service

Govt. extension service

Source of financing

Banks and own

Banks and own

Banks and private

Private, occasionally banks

Private, rarely banks

Breed of poultry

Commercial

Commercial

Commercial/ indigenous

Indigenous

Native

Food security of owner

High

High

High

Variable

High

Table 2: Characteristics of four different poultry production system

(Document FAO and OiE, a Global Strategy for the Progressive Control of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, May 2005)

 

Indonesia has a distinguished phenomenon different from above categories. Between sector 3 and 4, there is sector 3,5 which has character in between those two sectors, example amount of chicken cultivated is 30 – 500 and raised in the backyard, but put in the cages (semi backyard system). The cage usually made from bamboo.

Production

Compared to other, raising chicken with the system of sector 4 is most dominant one. Because chickens rose in sector 4 are kampong chicken. This sector found mostly in the village areas where the populations live in low economy condition. It is hard to detect the exact amount of kampong chickens. National Committee of AI estimates there are 435 millions of kampong chicken, based on counting of each family in Indonesia has 4 kampong chickens. According to government livestock statistics 2005, there are more than 285 million kampong chicken. It is very difficult counting the exact amount of kampong chickens since almost every family in Indonesia villages has kampong chicken raised in backyard poultry system. These chickens have function as:

  1. Ceremonial purpose. Example for religious ceremony in Bali or on Holy day occasion in Java.
  2. Chickens are not raised for economical purpose, but become one of the income source of the family even only gives a small contribution. Survey conducted by Veterinary Faculty of Bogor Institute of Agriculture (IPB) in Sumatra and Kalimantan island shows 73,5% chicken raising on sector 4 is just a part-time activity.
  3. Hobby, example raising rooster.
  4. Saving. Even when it is actually not so worthwhile.
  5. To eat the food-waste and kitchen waste.

Chicken meat and egg of kampong chicken are more preferable because it tastes better and use no chemical (artificial hormones, additional dangerous medicines, etc). Kampong chicken usually traded alive. In aggregate number, kampong chicken trade within one phase is up to 4 – 5 millions, where each phase lasts for 6 months.

AI is easily spread within sector 4 as well as infecting human. This situation encouraged by several factors:

  1. Chickens are roaming freely, make it is hard to monitor as well as vaccinated.
  2. Virus transmission happens rapidly among kampong chicken because there are no boundaries between infected and healthy chickens.
  3. Chickens are often raised together with ducks, which is dangerous since ducks can carry the virus without showing any sick clinical symptoms.
  4. Intensive contact with human since human and chicken live side by side for 24 hours.

 

Ministry of Agriculture stated that at least 27% of the total poutry in raised in backyard poultry within the country has infected by the AI virus. To limit the chance of virus transmission, the Ministry of Agriculture now is in the process of arranging regulation to prohibit poltry breeding without cage. This regulation is strongly needed since the small backyard poultry system is difficult to monitor and potentially spreading the AI virus.

Caging effort is almost impossible to do in sector 4 since most people are weak in economy. This economy reason is actually the basic reason of so many small backyard poultry system in Indonesia. Because in small back yard poultry system, you don’t have spend anything for the cage material or buy special standardize food for the chickens in the cages. Besides economy reason, lack of AI information and education level of the community is another factor. Example, if someone found their chicken died, they can’t tell the cause of the dead. Interpretation of the diseases causing their chicken death is assumed according to each of their definition toward the observation (visually). It could be based on the disease symptom that connected with the season change and based on their previous disease experience (historical disease) — usually farmer would mention ND if the previous outbreak was stated as ND — without actually having basic scientific knowledge about the disease. In this situation they will rarely recognize the disease as AI since it is a new disease, information about it is limited, and they never have any former experience with it. Moreover, in most of AI case the chicken stay healthy and showing no clinical symptom. They died in a sudden.

The wrong conclusion in analyzing the disease resulted in the wrong treatment of the chicken carcass. Those mistreatments are:

  1. The carcass easily thrown into the river or irrigation system, this allows the virus transmit through the water to people, ducks, wild birds, cattle, as well as other chickens.
  2. Chickens raised without cage sometimes died the places hidden from the farmer. So the carcass stayed there for long time and transmitted virus everywhere.
  3. It is a culture of the society to consider chicken as inseparable part of daily life and not for any economical purpose. This culture causing people just let the carcass be without any special treatment. This special treatment including burnt, buried the carcass, and disinfect the cage (if any). Chicken considered worthless, not worthy enough to get those treatment.

 

Marketing

Market takes important role in transmitting the AI virus. Market here means wet market, which are abundant in Indonesia. The characteristics are:

  1. Market that is not separating poultry, birds, and animal.
  2. Does not have good ditch, sewage, and disposal system causing the market floor wet and dirty
  3. Anyone is free to get in and out from the market
  4. Poultry entered the market are not registered in amount and health condition

 

This kind of market is common in Indonesia and through this market AI can easily spread. Make it hard to control and detect the virus transmission. Besides that, there is small-scale trade pattern that also take part in transmitting AI in Indonesia. Such as chicken vendor walk on foot in the village, selling chicken door to door or sell chicken to the market. We can find these vendors mostly in West Java. Where usually they ride motorcycles to carry the chickens from the village to the city and the reverse. The amount of chicken they sell is around 10-20. This is causing difficulty in controlling and detecting poultry movement. Those who conduct this small scale trade is not possible to register and seek for an official letter or statement letter about the health condition of the poultry they carry, from the animal health post since the administration fee to get the letter is Rp. 40.000. if within a day they can only collect profit Rp. 50.000 – Rp. 70.000 there is no way for them to acquire this official letter. Even sometime they get less profit from the administration fee. Besides, their consumers never bother about the poultry health official letter. .

 

On large-scale trade, poultry is moved from one place to another and from one island to another, using open cargo trucks. These poultry brought in the truck in live condition. Thereby, disease transmission is very likely to happen in all areas passed by the trucks. Poultry carried in the trucks are chickens, ducks and day old chickens. This open-air transportation is becoming risk factor of AI transmission. Bekasi area is a good example of this. There are fond many AI cases caused by the open-air trucks carrying poultry (as can be seen in the annex 1)

Result of Market Workshop “Safe Poultry Trading Practices in Densely Populated Areas”, at Lippo Karawaci, Tangerang on 18 -20 September 2006, stating that one of the challenges related to consumer behavior is that the consumers opt to buy live chickens rather than slaughtered chickens/carcass. This links to the assumption that fresh meat is the one coming from freshly slaughtered animals. This results shown that the trade and movement of live chicken will keep continuing in Indonesia. And make this as one the many risk factor needs serious attention.

 

Institutions

Poultry smuggling in Indonesia can happen from island to island, and smuggling city to city within the same village. Smuggling is common due to the price differentiation is so big between each areas. Example, smuggling ducks from East Java province to Bali province. In Bali, duck price can up to Rp.35.000 each, since many people demand ducks as one of the main component in their religious ceremony. While in east java, duck price only Rp.15.000 each. Chicken smuggling from Sulawesi and Surabaya heads to Papua. In Papua, chicken price is up to Rp. 150.000 each (kampong chicken). While in their origin place (Sulawesi and Surabaya), the price is only Rp. 30.000 each. Another smuggling area is Lampung to Java.

 

While smuggling city to city within the same island usually takes place from village/ small city to big city. Such as, chickens in Jakarta are smuggled from small cities surrounded it. This is also applied to Yogyakarta and many other big cities in Indonesia. Smuggling makes it hard to detect poultry movement and to take the control action.

 

Besides, even if the poultry movement is done legally, there is no guarantee this process is free from spreading AI because poultry is moved from one place to another alive. Permission letter will be issued if the chickens have been examined physically by the animal health post officer. This method actually still contains danger of AI transmission. If the chicken are still healthy when the pass the examining officer, but a moment later they all can be died suddenly by the AI. This situation can occur of the truck has not been disinfect after previously carrying chicken with AI, or because of making contact with the other truck that contains AI virus. In Annex 1 are the examples of risk factor emerged from 3 areas in West Java. These risk factors can be comparison to reflect the situation in other areas in Indonesia.

 

To overcome this smuggling and poultry movement, some of local governments as issued local regulation on closing the area to control the live poultry movement. Example, Bali local government issued Surat Keputusan (SK) Gubernur Bali no 44 tahun 2005.

EPIDEMIOLOGY

Surveillance

Surveillances carried out by BBV/BPPV, Veterinary Research Center, Veterinary Faculty in 5 universities (UGM, IPB, UNAIR, UNUD, and UNSYIAH), also helped by Animal Health Sub Service of the District/ City, Animal Health Laboratory, and Participatory Disease Surveillance. Indonesia has seven Disease Investigation Centers (DICs) and one national research laboratory as a reference lab (BALITVET) with BSL2 facilities. In addition, there are 25 Provincial laboratories (Class B), 40 quarantine station laboratories and one national veterinary drug assay laboratory (VDAL/BBPMSOH) of variable (but lower than BSL2) level. There are several commercial vaccine production facilities and one government facility (PUSVETMA).

 

Surveillance conducted by each local government through Animal Health Post. But this process was still passive; they do response after they received report from the community. Because this post is doing passively in responding AI, while in the field, community is reluctant to report to the post since they don’t consider AI as something dangerous and important, or they think people from government will get mad at them, or they are afraid they will get some charge of money if reporting, or they are just pessimist government will do nothing to respond as it has become the image of the government in the community’s thought. That is why active effort by searching, monitoring, and do immediate response for the current case. For instance these active efforts conducted by the PDS/PDR (Participatory Disease Surveillance/Participatory Disease Response) teams, but required huge cost and resources due to the vast area of Indonesian country. PDS/PDR team should be active involving and encouraging community to do surveillance and reporting independently. Up to now the PDS/PDR surveillance project is the most effective one in Indonesia.

PDS/R is a collaborative Avian Influenza control project between Ministry of Agriculture and FAO, sponsored by the international organization such as USAID Indonesia, AUSAID, etc.

The PDS/R program seeks to establish a participatory system of surveillance and control for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) at the community level in Indonesia. It employs proven methods of Participatory Disease Surveillance (PDS) and community involvement in disease control used in global eradication and rinderpest.

PDS is the application of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methods to disease surveillance for the collection of rapid, decision oriented intelligence about where a disease is occurring. Timely identification of disease foci permits a rapid targeted response to suppress the incidence of disease.

Within 24 hours of detection, a participatory disease response (PDR) team arrives at the site to facilitate both an immediate control response and community-based preventive measures. To control avian influenza in backyard poultry, the program recommends focal culling with immediate compensation combined with ring vaccination using local intermediaries, as well as other community-based initiatives. (The HPAI PDS and PDR Program, FAO and Ministry of Agriculture, 2005)

PDS/R recruiting man power from government staffs working in Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Health Directorate, Livestock Service of District/ city, and the Animal Health Post. The usage of government man power is proved to be positive, for instance in the Animal Health Post. The Animal Health post officers working in the field indirectly has been making a good relationship with the community. Hence in some places, the community has already known the animal health post officers through this project.

Besides surveillance with the above model, the minister of agriculture proclaimed to all governors, regent, and city major, to raise the surveillance and control actions within all of their territory. Involving the volunteers from Indonesian Red Cross, students of Veterinary faculties, and the interrelated institution to have disinfection and vaccination. These activities included within the National Movement “TUMPAS” (eradicate) Avian Influenza (GENTA) by tracing the hot spot locations by conducting Rapid test.

 

The Health Service also launched community based surveillance, by making 12.000 Prepared Village of 66.0000 total villages in Indonesia. This program was launched on 12 November 2006 on the occasion of Health Day. This program prepared village health volunteers to help surveillance on animals and human interrelated with AI. Directorate General of Disease Control and Environment Health of Ministry of Health instructed if there is dead chicken, it should be reported and if there is poultry positive infected by the AI, they will seek for the villager who is possibly infected by AI, door to door. The objective of this Prepared Village is to reach the isolate and remote community whixh previously difficult to contact. Communication and socialization toward the importance of AI is critical to be done. And through the Prepared Village program, tranfer information to the community becomes easier.

 

Control

There are lesson to be learned from this control process, it is the negative respond from community toward stamping out/ depopulation/ culling process. Stamping out/ depopulation/ culling is causing panic and anxiety within community because they don’t want their flock to be culled. While at the other side, the promised compensation from the government is received long time after the action, even rarely received by the community. This contributes in escalating refusal of the community to have their poultry culled. Just like what’s been told by the Governor of South Sulawesi: it is still very difficult to carry out depopulation in his area because of the low compensation, which is Rp. 10.000.

Control activities have been conducted in Indonesia toward AI as follows:

  1. Stamping out/ depopulation/ culling: Activity of depopulating poultry.
  2. Mass vaccination: carried out by the local government funded by central government.
  3. Ring vaccination: effort to protect other areas that surrounds the infected area.
  4. Disinfect the cages
  5. Poultry movement control

The other control is through vaccination. Vaccination is not easy to be conducted in Indonesia, especially in sector 4 encouraged by:

  1. Huge amount of chicken and spread in every part of Indonesia in one challenge does not balance with the vaccination officer. There is no adequate amount of vaccinator to handle this big responsibility.
  2. Negative image toward vaccination. Since there were several experiences chickens died after vaccination. And it happens not just once, but several times in several different places. So that community got bad impression from these incidents. They think vaccination killed their chicken. They do not understand it was not the vaccine killed the chicken, but the chicken itself already infected by the disease. Shown by the high death number of post-vaccination, as reported by the vaccinator in Kendari city, where the death number of post-vaccination is around 50-60% on the kampong chicken and 25-30% on the broiler chicken.
  3. Small backyard poultry system makes it difficult to have post-vaccination monitoring.

 

Vaccination has been conducted since March 2004 for 132 million dosages during 2004. Next on 2005 there was re-vaccination for 143,4 million dosages. And on 2006 vaccination is planned for 120 million dosages.

 

Chronology of Improvement

Province

District

Poultry Death

Information

Vaccination program in Indonesia is not getting full support yet both from the government and international aid organization. Reflected on the 2007 planning where government will only provide 60 million up to 70 million dosages of vaccines. The mentioned amount is actually only cover 10 % of the total vaccine needs in the traditional as well as house holds husbandry.

SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT ASSESMENT

 

SARS were causing extraordinary panic in the society. Entrance gates of every area were prepared and ready to filter and prevent the entrance of the virus into Indonesia. This kind of preparedness is not happen on AI. Furthermore, some people still does not consider AI as a dangerous disease unlike SARS, dengue, malaria, etc. On AI there is no special effort made by people in grass root level to prevent and control it. It there is any, it still passive. The absence of certain symbol that gives collective identity for the community applied on AI in Indonesia as well as the world. Unlike HIV/ AIDS, this has certain symbol: red ribbon as a solidarity movement toward HIV/ AIDS.

As reported by Investor Daily Newspaper, Thursday, 21 September 2006, The National Poultry Industry suffers loss approximately IDR 13 trillion because of avian influenza virus outbreak during 2003-2005 period. The loss of poultry industry is calculated from the decreasing price of chickens and eggs as the result of avian influenza. The National Poultry Pinsar, Hartono, stated that in the period of February-March 2004, the chicken price decreased immensely from IDR 7.000 to only IDR 1.800 per kg. Most of the loss was experienced by small and middle size farmers. Besides that, it influences the tourism industry and causing a higher risk of investment in Indonesia.

The zoonotic nature of AI is the one that threatened people from being infected and raising bias on community AI knowledge. Example, Karo oranges from plantation is rejected by the consumers once AI was found within the plantation area. Another example is the emerged of Movement against Poultry Farm Industry from community in Depok, West Java Province. This group consists of communities that panic from the AI issues. They wanted any poultry industry to be away from people settlement to avoid risk of being AI infected. These examples explain community reaction toward AI. In the first place when AI issues were blew up in the Medias but without the assistance of adequate information. It tends to raise panic and anxiety within community that leads to many kinds of unreasonable action to prevent AI.

 

AI control through culling/ stamping out/ depopulation is frightening community. They would prefer to sell their poultry rather than culled them. What often happens is community will sell their poultry as soon as they found out their chicken with AI positive confirmed by rapid test. This is happen in Bandar Lampung as well as other areas.

 

Compensation

According to the government decree, compensation for each culled chicken is Rp. 10.000. This amount of money is far under chicken market price market price, hence communities in many areas refused to have their chickens being culled. Furthermore, the long and hectic bureaucracy process of transferring the culling compensation emerging distrust from community toward government ability providing compensation. That is why most of them prefer to refuse culling rather that has culling without any compensation. Compensation plan must be adjusted with local social strength and the local poultry market price. Poultry market price in Indonesia is differs from one place to another. In Papua, each chicken can cost op to Rp. 100.000, while in Java it only Rp. 30.000. This price variation is one of the most important things to be considered when developing future culling plan. Also government needs to adjust the speed of giving compensation. The process should not take time too long for the money to be received by community. This compensation should be done immediately, regarding the emergency of the situation.

 

This price differentiation in each location has been reacted by the government by issuing the Director General Regulation no: 75/Kpts/PD.610/F/10.06 on the amount of compensation. Compensation given to the farmer is around Rp. 10.000 – Rp. 50.000 for each bird, according to the poultry average price in the area. This compensation price is suggested by the head of Livestock Service of the district/ city and acknowledged by the head of provincial livestock service. This rule was set out on 4 October 2006. Operational cost provided for each bird in depopulation/ stamping out activity is Rp. 1000,- . The following table is about depopulation has been carried out:

Year

Amount of depopulation

Value

Information

 

Another kind of AI control is control movement. This also has bad effect for the economy. In the poultry origin place, the price can be very low, while in other area not getting any poultry supply, the price can rise so high. But in fact, this control movement effort usually failed since community has urgent needs toward poultry especially chickens. In Medan area those things happened. As presented in the presentation of Veterinary faculty of UGM “ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF AVIAN INFLUENZA CONTROL PROGRAM IN JAVA” there are some farmers getting profit increasing from the outbreak. It is estimated that the sloping of poultry production and its products affected on its escalating price. Additionally, not all province conducting control movement, stamping out, and disease mapping as the AI control program. This situation leads to difficulties in AI control in Indonesia.

LIVELIHOOD

 

Poultry Roles in Livelihood

Indonesia has highly various socio-cultural levels. Thus, speaking AI impact in Indonesia related to livelihood, we must consider its socio cultural context background. Each tribe and ethnic community has their own typical way in treating chicken. The different for example can be learnt from Sumedang and Depok. In Sumedang, people consider chicken as inseparable part of their daily live, but not in Depok. Depok is a sub-urban area, half city and half village. This sociological condition affected on the community perspective on the chicken function. Chicken is seen as a usual good without any special value. The economic value of chicken is very low. People think this way especially in sector 4 and in poor community.

 

The other example is Bali. They put value on, treated chicken and even the demand level are based on the community’s socio-cultural character. Demand of kampong chicken and ducks is fairly high. Chickens and ducks played important role within the religious ceremonies. These birds are needed in “Mecaru” ceremony, and also cooked (usually grilled) as thankful symbol of the bless from God.

 

Besides those, these birds also used as important menu in the feast or served to the guest of the religious ceremony. The ceremony frequency in Bali is so high, for example in a family consists of 4 persons: 2 children, father and mother may need chickens or ducks within their religious ceremonies up to 10 – 12 times each year. This amount can be doubled by the incidental ceremonies, which keep occurring during the year. Amount of chicken or ducks needed is depending on the scale of the ceremony, but usually for each it takes minimum two just for small ceremony.

 

In some areas such as Jawa and Bali, there is a special culture that keeps the kampong rooster demand high: cock fighting. Cock fighting is usually associated with gambling means or just a hobby. Talking about AI prevention, these roosters always get special attention and treatment from the owners. They very are well taken care, keep in the clean cage. The cage is also carefully taken care. It is cleaned and put under the sun regularly. These chickens feed intake and type of food always kept clean and in appropriate nutrition. All these treatments are different from what kampong chickens usually treated in small backyard poultry system. But still these actions do not guarantee the kampong rooster free from AI.

 

Socio-cultural Background

Indonesia has 33 provinces. From the total 33 provinces there are some provinces free from and endemic of AI. So that we can conclude the AI transmission of the following province as listed below:

§ 3 Provinces; Maluku. Gorontalo and North Maluku is still being free provinces from AI (AI Freezone Area).

§ Provinces such as West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, West Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, North Sulawesi, South East Sulawesi, West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara, are the low incidents area and within this 6 months there is no AI case reported.

§ Provinces in Java and Sumatera are poultry producers area with high AI incidents, such as all provinces in di Java, Lampung, West Sumatra, North Sumatra, Riau and Jambi as provinces with case on human.

§ Province with special characteristic; poultry producer as wel as tourist resort, for example Bali.

 

The fact of the above areas which has become endemic areas is that each area represents its own typical socio-cultural background, hence needs appropriate approach. Several endemic areas having their typical socio-cultural character such as:

    1. Medan represents northern part of Sumatra Island, with population majority Batak tribe.
    2. Lampung, a heterogen/ mixed area due to the government transmigration program.
    3. West Java and Jakarta represent Sunda and Betawi tribes
    4. Central Java and Yogyakarta represent Jawa (cultured dialect)
    5. East Java represents Jawa (more rude dialect) and Madura
    6. Bali represents Balinese tribe

 

These six provinces having very high frequency of AI cases on poultry and human. The most AI case is found in West Java province, 22 human’s cases with 17 died. The second place is Jakarta, with 16 cases and 1 died. No definite explanation whether there is strong connection between socio-cultural character and spreading of AI in Indonesia. But one for sure is AI control approach must consider the variety of existing socio-cultural in the mentioned location. Example, improving community participation through the forming of local vaccinator cadre by considering the local context of its socio-cultural. This can be done by enforcing the youth groups (karang taruna) exist in each of RT (Rukun Tetangga — neighborhood group)/ RW (Rukun Warga – community group) for Java, while in Bali they called it as Kelihan Adat/ Banjar.

Nutritional and Restocking

Poultry plays important role within nutrition intake of Indonesian people. 65% of Indonesian people nutrition sources come from poultry, especially from chicken. Why chicken? There are several reasons why chicken are the most popular nutrient source:

  1. Available everywhere in low price. Majority of Indonesia population are weak in economy sector. Chicken meat if far is cheaper than the other kind of meat (Goat/ sheep meat or beef).
  2. Most of Indonesian population is Muslim. They don’t eat pork as alternative source of protein.

 

Regards to restocking, community usually is a bit reluctant in doing it. Both spontaneous or with planning. This is caused by the negative effect of stamping out/ depopulation, or culling. And the fact that even without any chicken around, people’s life does not have so many changes in their life. Most of Indonesian people raising chicken in their backyard used as “garbage can” for the remaining. Things like this happen in Ngumbul sub village, Turi sub district, Yogyakarta province.

 

 

COMMUNICATION

 

National Immunization Program (PIN) in Indonesia is categorized as success since community is seemed to understand the information advertised in Medias. On the national advertisement, it was mentioned when and where PIN will take place as well as persuasive invitation to join this program. In local level, government provided information tools about PIN, such as brochures, pamphlets. PIN was conducted nationally in national level.

Second case as comparison to AI control was Dengue control. Indonesia. Indonesia was having many bad experiences with dengue. In every outbreak the human victims are always abundant. These sick people go to the hospital for treatment, but since their amount always abundant, hospital usually has no more room to treat these patients. They are everywhere within the hospital. Equipped only with emergency bed, a blanket, and intravenous feeding, these patients got minimum treatment. And we do loss a lot of people within this outbreak. But Indonesia is regarded as doing success in eradicating Dengue, by several technical steps related to the sewage and waste management, fogging, abate pills distribution, etc. What differ dengue control to AI control is that in dengue, the subject in mosquito. Mosquito does not have any functional and economical value. Also it does not hurt anyone if the mosquito is being depopulated. But with AI it is not the same since the subject is poultry. And everywhere in the world, poultry has many functional and economical values. It will hurt many parties if the poultry should be eradicated, moreover if no compensation along with it.

AI campaign in Indonesia

AI campaign in Indonesia in the beginning was about “it is safe to consume chicken and egg” which was popular during the reign of President Megawati on 2004. This campaign is to avoid the economic loss that can emerge from community refusal to consume chicken and the egg.

September 1 2006, Indonesia launched national campaign to raise community awareness toward AI. This campaign with theme “Beware of AI” (Tanggap Flu Burung) contains information about AI prevention and how to reduce the risk of being infected of AI. It is socialized through television and radio, advertisement board, leaflets, and the other media form. Along with those, government was also having official appointment on the Secretariat of Indonesian National Committee and Preparedness toward Avian Influenza. This national committee which was set through the President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono decree in the beginning of this year is a body of the same level with the ministry responsible to coordinate AI prevention steps. .

The “Beware of AI” campaign of which supported by UNICEF and Japan is centralized on 4 main messages: DO NOT TOUCH, WASH WITH SOAP, SEPARATE, and EXAMINE.

1. Do not touch the sick and dead poultry. In case you already touch it, wash your hand immediately with soap and report it to the head of your village

2. Wash your hand with soap and also your cooking equipments. Cook well the chicken and egg before eat

3. Separate the poultry from human. Also separate the old and new poultry or 2 weeks

4. Examine yourself to the community health center if you have flu or fever after having contact with poultry.

National Committee on AI also cooperates with Metro TV and Hotel & Restaurant Association on campaigning “Beat the Bird Flu!” This campaign will be effective starts from January 1 2007 for a month, and is a support to the government campaign “Beware of AI” (Tanggap Flu Burung!)

It is hard to state whether the advertisement and campaign exhibited is success to raise the community awareness due to the large extent of Indonesian archipelago, varieties of Indonesian community characters, and the many of incidences. In some place these campaigns could have been successful, but not in the other places. Often community does not even care on the AI issue. Variation of case toward the impact of the campaign and advertisement about AI can be observed in the place that once ever infected by the AI, rather that the place without experience. The place without experience on AI infection case commonly will pay no attention, but for people in area once infected by AI, they usually have better knowledge and higher awareness caused by having frequent contact with NGO and government staff dealing with AI.

 

Direct information delivered through dialog is more understandable compared to one-way communication through advertisement. Regards to that, dialogues on AI should be more frequent in community. This is very likely to have it discussed during the community gathering as well as having TOT (Training of Trainers) for the community. But this method required plenty time and money.

Thing like this happened in West Java as reported in daily news Media Indonesia, Wednesday, 4 October 2006, stated AI campaign in West Java is not effective. As a sequence of this West Java having the highest number of AI in human case. Sub Service of Environment Health in West Java, Fatimah Resmiati stated they will try another campaign form to make AI control effective. That campaign will involved school students as well as students from religious education institution.

 

Press freedom is not always have positive impact on AI case in Indonesia, published news in printed as well as audio visual media emerging panic in the community as can be seen in the declining number of chicken demand in the markets during 2003 – 2004. As the growing time, nowadays people are getting bored and pay less attention toward AI information in media, which was frightening at the beginning. Because what is need is an effective campaign, not a scary news.

The Relation between Community with Policy Makers

Workshop should the effective way to relate community with policy makers, because it allows dialog to happen. That’s why many organizations, like FAO, conducted several workshops with the policy makers to formulate the same perception toward AI control in Indonesia. Even so, Mr Iwan – FAO National Consultant on Epidemiologist – stating that these workshops are almost always failed, since these policy makers still consider unimportant. AI is considered just like the other disease, easy to control, thus does not need direct involvement from the local important people. Even when FAO tried to have workshop attended by one of the minister, still the local policy makers did not come to it. It caused by:

  1. Policy makers understanding and awareness toward the importance of AI still very low.
  2. This situation also derived from the difficulties in coordination from central to local, and even from local to local.
  3. Local autonomy. With the local autonomy, the central government does not have full authority to control the regions, in this case, AI control.

Communication between community and government (Ministry of Agriculture) about AI has been done by establishing SMS Gateway in number: 08176677161. Phone and Fax: (021) 7812624 and email: keswan@deptan.go.id. The establishing of this communication way is used by community to report the case and also asking detail question related to AI. Day by day, Ministry of Agriculture received more and more sms and phone calls due to the number and address are more and more socialized within the community and advertised information and campaign to control AI are escalating by this year. The same thing also published in Kompas newspaper, October 26 2006, stating things are getting better compared to the previous years. Community become aware if there is any AI symptoms on one of their family member

RESPONSE CAPACITY IN RELATION TO APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGIES

 

Virus Characteristics and Diagnostic

October 5 2006 FAO was having press release, stating:

The latest results of sequencing tests on virus isolates from poultry infected with avian influenza in Indonesia indicate that the virus is not mutating towards a more virulent strain that could attack humans and set off a pandemic.

Studies of the sequences of more than 49 virus isolates from poultry on the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali show no significant changes or mutation in the characteristics of the H5N1 avian influenza virus which is affecting much of the country.

In every province, there is university (es) that has Veterinary faculty and laboratory, quipped with the standard equipments like:

1. Rapid test

2. Serology test

3. Virus Isolation test

4. PCR test

 

There are two types of vaccine used in Indonesia:

1. Homologous vaccine, H5 with N1, can be made locally

2. Heterologous vaccine, H5 with N2 and N9, which imported.

Indonesian government suggests using the heterologous vaccine. But many entrepreneurs and community prefers to use homolog vaccine since it is better in quality. But actually, homologous vaccine is more difficult to monitor since it’s hard to differ which virus is come from the environment where the chicken live and which virus come from the vaccine.

 

The vaccinator team, which tried to be developed in Indonesia, is local vaccinators, consists of the local people in the villages. This local vaccinator team development is another way of participatory method of the PDS/ PDR activities. It has been tried in several areas: Java, Medan, Lampung, and Bali. These local teams’ members consist of the member of the following groups; youth organization midwives, etc, with purpose as follows:

  1. To prevent virus transmission from one place to another. If using local vaccinator, at least vaccinator does not spread the virus to another village, since he/ she only vaccinating in his/ her own village
  2. Improving knowledge about AI. Before able to vaccinate, the local vaccinator get training from the PDS/ PDR team. And within the training, the PDS/ R also provide information about AI. Now the local vaccinators are able to differ AI from other diseases such as ND.
  3. Know the area best. The local vaccinators know their area best. So it is easy to detect which house already got vaccination, and which one has not vaccinated yet. Also, it is easier to control AI since they live in that area.

 

Time Trends

The following graphic shows the spread and amount of animal/ poultry died each month up to December 2005 with the lowering tendency, but on December 2005 – January 2006 it tends to escalate again, assumed it because of the rainy season.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tjandra Yoga, a health observer, being exposed on the Indonesian media, stated that AI case is always escalating during the rainy season and winter. He also stated that during the rainy season, situation can get worse since the flood can speed the virus transmission. But there are some interesting point shows in the graphic below, collected from the PDS report. On 2006, graphic shows that AI escalates during the July- September which happens to be the dry season.

 

Picture 2: The number of HPAI Positive Cases per Month

(January 2006 to 21 September 2006)

 

 

OVERALL RESPONSE CAPACITY

Avian Influenza entered Indonesia on 2003 has been causing millions of chickens died and also started to infect human since June 2005. On 2003, this deadly disease on chicken were not recognize yet as AI thus there was no certain evidence on how to control this disease. The only effort conducted that time was stopping poultry import activity. At that time, this disease was considered as new variant of New Castle Disease. On 2004 this virulent disease were finally recognized as AI.

On the same year Minister of Agriculture was issuing decree no: 96/Kpts/PD.620/2/2004, date. 3 February 2004, stating AI as dangerous disease. Since then there were some efforts made to control AI, manifested as 9 strategic steps:

1. strict biosecurity implementation

2. selective depopulation on the contagious premises

3. vaccination

4. poultry movement control

5. surveillance and tracing

6. community awareness improvement

7. restocking

8. stamping out in the new contagious premise

9. monitoring, reporting, and evaluation

In order to be able implementing these 9 steps effectively, wholly, and integrated, by community, farmer, Livestock Service/ animal health officers, these steps are written in the Standard Operational Procedure book, on 2006.

National Strategic Work Plan for the Progressive Control of HPAI in Animals for 2006 – 2008

On 2005, Ministry of Agriculture in collaboration with FAO, WHO, and some other programs from overseas, arranged strategic plan or National Strategic Work Plan for the Progressive Control of HPAI in Animals for 2006 – 2008. This strategic work plan consists of 9 elements, those are: campaign management, enhancement of HPAI control in animals, surveillance and epidemiology, laboratory services, national animal quarantine services, legislation and enforcement, communications, research and development, and industry restructuring

The institution structure that supervised these 9 elements can be seen on the following chart:

Element 1 establishes a Campaign Management structure within the Directorate of Animal Health, DGLS. The central management unit will operate through 9 regional operational units based around nine Disease Investigation Centres and 35 Local Disease Control Centers at Provincial level. The introduction of Campaign Management Units at the Regional level will provide a mechanism for coordination and clearer definition of roles and responsibilities of regional and district staff in the delivery of the HPAI control program.

Project coordination will be undertaken by a Steering Committee, which will ensure participation of the Ministries of Agriculture, Health, Forestry, National Planning (Bappenas), Industry, Coordinating Ministries of Public Welfare and Economics and other stakeholders, including industry, veterinary association, and international organizations.

Elements 2 to 9 are essentially technical domains amenable to donor funding via projects that may fall under the campaign management structure or under multilateral or bilateral operations. Each has a scientific campaign management unit that is responsible for definition of the work to be conducted under technical elements. Short term consultancies may be organized, as needed, to support individual projects and activities within these elements.

(National Strategic work Plan for the Progressive Control of HPAI in Animals, Ministry of Agriculture, December 2005)

Indonesia is divided into 9 regions shown in the map below:

 

On grass root level, most activities conducted by CMU collaborating with FAO are surveillance and immediate responds. The veterinarians joined together in PDS/ PDR team carry out surveillance and immediate respond. For each district, there are 2 PDS/ PDR teams. If PDS team finds case in the field, which has been proved by rapid test and the clinical symptoms leads to AI; this case must be reported within 24 hours. The report send to PDR team, LDCC (Local Disease Control Center) in province or district level (responsible for coordinating PDS. PDR teams), DIC (Disease Investigation Center), and also report it to the CMU in national level. PDR team has 2 main responsibilities:

  1. Stopping active case by carrying out preventive depopulation: encouraging community to actively report
  2. Vaccination program using community participation, conducted by the local vaccinators.

AI National Committee

There are some other kind of responds related to AI control besides the effort made by Ministry of Agriculture. The Ministry of Peoples Welfare establishes National Committee of Avian Influenza. This committee stationed in central, while offices stationed in the province is the Task Force. Task Force consists of many elements: Health Service, Livestock Service, Police, Community leaders, etc. regards to that we have problem in the lack of coordination among institution and/ or between regions, and the lack of government authority concern with poultry regulation.

This lack of coordination can be seen from the cooperation that should be existed among Ministry of Agriculture with Ministry of Health. Ministry of Agriculture seems to work only on the animal (poultry) issues. While Ministry of Health tend to focus only on Human case issues. Coordination problem like this mostly happened in the national level. Ministry of Peoples Welfare should bridge gap between these two ministries. But in fact, this expectation seemed to be too high. In the local level, it is also not that easy building coordination for the AI control action. This situation is caused by variety of institution in the local level. Example, in province level we can find the Livestock Service, but in the district level we can not always find the Livestock Service since sometime the Livestock Service is under other Service supervision, such as under the supervision of Agriculture and Marine Service. The livestock/ Animal service is positioned as sub-service. This causes trouble in receiving and applying commando from the central to eradicate AI, and also sensitively related to the budget issues.

While in contrary, in Ministry of Health the situation is not the same. Command and coordination from central to local is very easy to be done because on each level (province and district) the Health Service is available. Even in the sub-district level, they have Community Health Center (Puskesmas). Relevant to this issue, the lack of government authority on poultry regulation are shown as follows:

  1. No authority to regulate sector 1 and 2, as can be seen in the chicken meat price, DOC, and import-export policies are more affected by poultry industry rather that the government.
  2. No regulation mentioned about safe distance of poultry industry from community housing area.
  3. Regulation about obligation to put the poultry on the cage is newly issued that is why the effectiveness has not seen yet at the moment
  4. We still use the old Laws version of 1960s, where many aspects were missed and not appropriate with the community development.

 

On 2007, the AI control program will have a fresh air since there will be more funding from Country Budget as well fro the international aid fund. The international partners already committe giving aid as much as 65,5 million US dollar to support the AI control effort and the preparedness of the coming influenza pandemic. The aid in 2007 is having a significant increase compared to 2006 which worth 35 million US dollar. Govenrment also provides budget 61 million US dollar from the Country Budget., this amount increased from last years, 55 million US dollar.

The collected fund will allocated to the programs of AI control. Those programs are Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza control (28,177 million US dollar), AI infection on human control (12,4 million US dollar), and protection for the susceptive groups (1,2 million US dollar). Besides those mentioned above, this fund will also be used to support surveillance epidemiology activities: on poultry (10,538 million US dollar), on human (3,9 million US dollar), public campaign (3,1 million US dollar), capacity building (0,7 million US dollar) and the animal research activities (5,175 million US dollar) and on human (0,35 million US dollar). (Media Indonesia online, 2006)

AI control effort on 2007 will focus on livestock industry restructure, especially poultry. In this case, government will evaluate production process, processing, distribution, trading, poultry consumption; poultry slaughter house, and the poultry product market. All these effort conducted to identify the risks of disease transmission from animal to human.

ANNEX 1: RISK FACTOR

One thought on “AI in indonesia

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s